May 31, 2020
The biblical book of Genesis calls it Tia, which is short for Tiamat, the word means watery monster. We call it Earde or Earth; it formed 4.8 billion years ago in the space between Mars and Jupiter. At that time, planetary orbits had not settled in to their present configurations, 4 billion years ago the solar system was a much more dangerous place, it had planet(s) wondering around that were not influenced by Sol’s gravity. The wanderer that we are interested in is called Nibiru; it may have never come to our attention if it had not had its path curved by Neptune’s gravity, then curved further by Jupiter’s gravity. Nibiru had four satellites, moons; these fired its core and provided the volcanic activity that had allowed life to develop there.
Nibiru’s path had been diverted enough that it was now on a collision course with Tiamat,
ordinarily you might think that this was a disaster in the making, but in this instance, no it was not. Tiamat at that time was approximately 1/3 bigger than earth is now, and had a lot more water. Tiamat was severely wounded by the collision with Nibiru’s moon, we were ripped open and had huge chunks tore from us, and these chunks are now the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.
Tiamat also ingested continent sized pieces of Nibiru’s moon, and could possibly be the continent sized pieces floating around the earth’s mantle now disturbing our magnetic fields.
The conditions at the moment of impact are almost impossible to imagine.
Billions of gallons of water flash boiled in to super-heated steam, billions more gallons of water pouring in to the giant cavity in the earth, the planet’s rotation slowing, its orbital speed slowed, it’s possible that the water pouring in to that gash saved the earth from tearing itself apart. It is likely that it was this event that caused the development of plate tectonics; earth was now a cracked egg.
The abundance of water on Earth’s surface is a unique feature that distinguishes the “Blue Planet” from other planets in the Solar System. Earth’s hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters down to a depth of 2,000 m. The deepest underwater location is the Challenger deep in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, with a depth of 10,911.4 m The mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of Earth’s mass. The oceans cover an area of 3.618×108 Km³ with a mean depth of 3682 m. If Earth’s entire crustal surface were at the same elevation as a smooth sphere, the depth of the resulting world ocean would be 2.7 to 2.8 km. About 97.5% of the water is saline; the remaining 2.5% is fresh water. Most fresh water, about 68.7%, is present as ice in either ice caps or glaciers. The average salinity of Earth’s oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of seawater (3.5%) salt.
The main part of the earth’s magnetic fields is generated in the core, the site of a dynamo process that converts kinetic energy of fluid convective motion into electrical and magnetic field energy. The field extends outwards from the core, through the mantle, and up to Earth’s surface, where it is, to rough approximation, a dipole. The poles of the dipole are located close to Earth’s geographic poles. At the equator of the magnetic field, the magnetic-field strength at the surface is 3.05 × 10−5 T with global magnetic dipole moment of 7.91 × 1015 T m3. The convection movements in the core are chaotic; the magnetic poles drift and periodically change alignment. This causes field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. The most recent reversal occurred approximately 700,000 years ago. The extent of Earth’s magnetic field in space defines the magnetosphere. Ions and electrons of the solar wind are deflected by the magnetosphere; solar wind pressure compresses the dayside of the magnetosphere, to about 10 Earth radii, and extends the night side magnetosphere into a long tail. Since the velocity of the solar wind is greater than the speed at which wave propagate through the solar wind, a supersonic bow shock precedes the dayside magnetosphere within the solar wind. Charged particles are contained within the magnetosphere; the plasma sphere is defined by low-energy particles that essentially follow magnetic field lines as Earth rotates; the ring current is defined by medium-energy particles that drift relative to the geomagnetic field, but with paths that are still dominated by the magnetic field, and the Van Allen radiation belt are formed by high-energy particles whose motion is essentially random, but otherwise contained by the magnetosphere.
During a magnetic storm, charged particles can be deflected from the outer magnetosphere, directed along field lines into Earth’s ionosphere, where atmospheric atoms can be excited and ionized, causing the aurora, or northern and southern lights.
Earth’s rotation period relative to the Sun—its mean solar day—is 86,400 seconds of mean solar time (86,400.0025 SI (seconds). Because Earth’s solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal acceleration each day varies between 0 and 2 S Earth’s rotation period relative to the fixed stars called its stellar day by the International rotation and Reference System Service (IERS), is 86,164.098903691 seconds of mean solar time (UT1), or 23h 56m 4.098903691. Earth’s rotation period relative to the precessing or moving mean vernal equinox , misnamed its sidereal day, is 86,164.09053083288 seconds of mean solar time (UT1) (23h 56m 4.09053083288s) as of 1982. Thus, the sidereal day is shorter than the stellar day by about 8.4 ms the length of the mean solar day in SI seconds is available from the IERS for the periods 1623–2005 and 1962–2005.
Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 150 million kilometers every 365.2564 mean solar days, or one sidereal year. This gives an apparent movement of the Sun eastward with respect to the stars at a rate of about 1°/day, which is one apparent Sun or Moon diameter every 12 hours. Due to this motion, on average it takes 24 hours—a solar year—for Earth to complete a full rotation about its axis so that the Sun returns to the meridian. The orbital speed of Earth averages about 29.8 km/s (107,000 km/h), which is fast enough to travel a distance equal to Earth’s diameter, about 12,742 km, in seven minutes, and the distance to the Moon, 384,000 km, in about 3.5 hours.
The Moon and Earth orbit a common barycenter every 27.32 days relative to the background stars. When combined with Earth–Moon system’s common orbit around the Sun, the period of the synodic month, from new moon to new moon, is 29.53 days. Viewed from the celestial North Pole, the motion of Earth, the Moon, and their axial rotations are all counterclockwise. Viewed from a vantage point above the north poles of both the Sun and Earth, Earth orbits in a counterclockwise direction about the Sun. The orbital and axial planes are not precisely aligned: Earth’s axis is tilted some 23.4 degrees from the perpendicular to the Earth–Sun plane (the ecliptic), and the Earth–Moon plane is tilted up to ±5.1 degrees against the Earth–Sun plane. Without this tilt, there would be an eclipse every two weeks, alternating between lunar eclipses and solar eclipses.
The Hill sphere, or gravitational sphere of influence, of Earth is about 1.5 Gm or 1,500,000 km in radius. This is the maximum distance at which the Earth’s gravitational influence is stronger than the more distant Sun and planets. Objects must orbit Earth within this radius, or they can become unbound by the gravitational perturbation of the Sun.
Earth, along with the Solar System, is situated in the Milky Way galaxy and orbits about 28,000 light years from the center of the galaxy. It is about 20 light years above the galactic plane in the Orion spiral arm.
The standard astronomical symbol of Earth consists of a cross-circumscribed by a circle, .
Unlike other planets in the Solar System, humankind did not begin to view Earth as a moving object until the 16th century. Earth has often been personified as a deity, in particular a goddess. In many cultures, a mother goddess is also portrayed as a fertility deity. Creation myths in many religions recall a story involving the creation of Earth by a supernatural deity or deities. A variety of religious groups, often associated with fundamentalist branches of Protestantism or Islam, assert that their interpretations of these creation myths in texts are literal truths and should be considered alongside or replace conventional scientific accounts of the formation of Earth and the origin and development of life. Such assertions are opposed by the scientific community and by other religious groups. A prominent example is the creation/evolution controversy.